Empowering Self-Advocacy by Health Workers, and Highly Affected and At-Risk Populations
In July 2020 we launched what we are calling the “Covid-19 Care Monitoring Coalition” (CCMC), to help facilitate self-advocacy and a constructive dialogue between health care providers, ministries of health, and population groups at high risk because of Covid-19.
- The CCMC is growing organically, having passed 80 partners in 53 countries by the beginning of September.
- Partners in 5 countries are already working on national scale-up strategies after they completed their pilots. And Ministries of Health in these countries are being very supportive. Several more will follow in the coming weeks.
Countries in dark orange on the map below are already producing live data:
Fredrik Galtung, CEO of TrueFootprint (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Aim and Purpose
The Covid-19 Care Monitoring Coalition (CCMC) has two main objectives:
- First, to provide a way for healthcare workers, at-risk patients and local communities to engage more effectively in self-advocacy to ensure a safe workplace and safe access to key health services by contributing to finding solutions and resolving issues they identify; and
- Second, to give health authorities a tool to assess the safety of health facilities and allow them to course-correct in real-time with data generated from the frontline.
This is reporting from the frontline on the very basic question whether health facilities are safe and accessible: in the context of the Covid-19 pandemic are these health facilities safe for the people who work there? And are they safe for the healthcare users?
It’s not a contact tracing app. Nor is it simply a data gathering solution. It is a tool and set of resources for self-organising and self-advocacy.
Two-week pilots have been conducted in eighteen countries in Africa, Asia, Central America, and in Europe since project launched in July.
Once it is up and running, this approach will produce real-time data driven by people and communities who have the most at stake to ensure that health services are safe and accessible. This will enable:
- Descriptive analytics: e.g. are health services are delivered safely and are they accessible to those who need it; and early warnings to pre-empt crises; where and how and by whom are problems being solved
- Predictive analytics: e.g. where are there likely to be problems, and where are there likely to be fewer issues
Our aim with this project is ultimately to contribute to safer access to healthcare in as many facilities as possible in as many countries as possible.
The strategy for reaching this goal is twofold:
- Make the technology and method freely available to any group interested in making use of this approach in any country; and
- Systematic and sustained deployments in a small number of countries, contingent on funding, with the goal of covering of all relevant health facilities in a country/district/province (depending on the country’s size), and with 25% of facilities randomly selected as control locations to test the extent to which this approach contributes to improved health outcomes and lower mortality rates among health workers.
Empowering Self-Advocacy by Health Workers and At-Risk Populations
The Covid-19 Care Monitoring Coalition (CCMC) is a network supported by a set of self-advocacy tools for health workers, at-risk populations, and local communities. It enables this by
- Providing granular data dashboards that are easily customised to address the specific needs and entitlements of at-risk groups, which helps to facilitate their self-advocacy with the policy makers and local officials with whom groups often already have prior relationships
- Sharing insights across of the network of how specific problems were solved
- Providing a live data feed (and PDF reports) to relevant health officials.
Crucially, it provides a real-time data feed and knowledge sharing of
- The resolution-rate of identified problems
- Where they are being solved
How problems are being solved (and then sharing these experiences across the network so that they can be replicated and emulated elsewhere)
- As well as eventually identifying Who is doing the solving and giving these people or organisations recognition for this if they are open to receiving it.
All the emphasis and all the incentives are geared towards solving problems, not just identifying them.
Problem-solving is ultimately what empowers and motivates for self-advocacy and what will contribute to better health outcomes for affected workers, populations and communities.
Health workers are our core users. In many countries, health workers are not allowed to unionise or organise strikes. The CCMC is a constructive, evidence-based advocacy solution for this critical population.
In addition to health workers, the CCMC is also working to include other at-risk and highly affected people:
- People living with HIV and TB in Indonesia, Zambia, India and Ukraine
- Community health organisers in Harlem, New York
- Grassroots health organisations working with Native Americans in the US Midwest and Native Hawaiians in Hawaii
- Parents of children with serious disabilities in South Africa
- Families with children with severe nutritional deficits in Sao Paulo
- Tribal people in the Brazilian Amazon
- People living in UNHCR refugee camps in Uganda
- Incarcerated people in the UK
- Homeless people in Brazil, Malawi and other countries
- Internally displaced people in Kenya
- Sex workers in India
- Workers and people living in care homes in France
- Youth organisations in many countries.
As an example of how this self-advocacy can be organised on the ground, our CCMC partner in DR Congo, is already working on creating multi-stakeholder collaborative meetings that will allow monitors, patient groups, community members and health officials from a health area to constructively work together, negotiate and to mutually agree on an action plan to improve healthcare services. They will use insights and evidence collected by health users and health workers to lead discussions and high-level advocacy on priority problems.
Emphasis will first be placed on solutions which can be tackled at the local level with available resources, as well as on advocacy actions towards higher level authorities that can be taken to improve health outcomes. These advocacy actions can sometimes be jointly conducted by representatives of health users and health workers and local health officials towards subnational-level health officials and then to national-level officials. These action plans are then translated into concrete actions, responsibilities are determined, deadlines are set, donors are identified and required resources are identified.
With the support of local senior health officials, this CCMC partner is already laying the groundwork for institutionalising the FieldApp and advocating for its adoption by health users-led monitoring in both provinces and across DRC as ‘’new normal” to cover other disease burdens, not just Covid-19.
The monitoring is supported by the use of the Covid-19 FieldApp developed by TrueFootprint, a technology company based in Cambridge, UK.
The Covid-19 FieldApp
- Is a mobile application that is installed on people’s phones. The current version was created for Android phones, by far the most widely used mobile phone operating system. Future versions will also work on iOS and may also be developed for other mobile operating systems if there is a need for this.
- The training requirements for using it are minimal: healthcare workers require little to no training and patient monitors may require as little as 10 minutes of training to understand the purpose and function of the app.
- What does require more training time is for people to understand what they do with the data and how they can contribute to addressing identified problems. We foresee doing this in stages and sharing key lessons learned both through in-person training and by disseminating learning directly through the app and local WhatsApp groups.
- It generally takes less than 2 minutes to complete a daily report to answer a standard set of questions that are based on the WHO Covid-19 guidance.
- Can be used in offline mode when someone with a phone does not have mobile data, no mobile reception, or Internet access. Reported data will sync the next time the phone is connected.
Deployment and Execution Strategy
Successful execution of this project depends on a combination of factors:
- Scalable technology: The core technology must be user-centred and truly built for scale. In his last role, the Chief Product Officer leading the product team, oversaw a product with 1 billion monthly impressions and 130 million consumers in 30 languages. (see Annex 1)
- A credible theory of change: The theory of change is that (a) the people with the most at stake (in this case health workers and at-risk groups) are the best possible changemakers because they are motivated and they see the problems first hand and in real-time; (b) these people benefit from a solution that is secure, that safeguards their confidentiality and that enables them to create a collective voice; (c) people who are successful changemakers are delighted to get recognition for their achievements, leadership and innovations and are happy to share this with their peers; and (d) insights learned from peers tackling similar problems elsewhere are rapidly adopted.
- Distribution networks: The CCMC’s main distribution network is Catalyst 2030 a collaborative of 300+ social entrepreneurs who operate in 160 countries combined and that cover more than 85% of the SDG targets. The majority of the current partners of the CCMC are members of Catalyst 2030 or their national partner organisations. In the coming months we will also be seeking partnership with major international networks through organisations like the Global Fund, and major health INGOs. (see Annex 2)
- Data and evidence: The production of real-time, verifiable data is a key output of the CCMC. The utility of the CCMC is tested further through controlled studies overseen by researchers and data scientists independent of TrueFootprint and the CCMC.
- Local ownership: Adoption and sustainability require local ownership. Over 90% of the partners in the CCMC are local organisations. The main stakeholders are 100% local. (see Annex 2)
- Government buy-in: Scale-up and long-term adoption will depend on adoption, in this case, by national and local health authorities, including the Ministry of Health. In several countries already, national and local health authorities have given their support to the national scale-up efforts.
Project Management and Funding
This project has two funding needs: (a) the core technology and data costs and partner support and coordination; and (b) support to self-organising by workers in health facilities, local communities and at-risk groups.
In some countries and settings, it will be possible for such self-organising to be done on a voluntary basis. But in many cases funding is needed for coordination, even local transportation, communication and data costs. Resources will certainly be needed in those countries where partners aim to achieve full and ongoing coverage of all relevant health facilities (and conduct controlled studies of the contribution of this model to health outcomes and reduced health worker mortality rates).
In most cases partners are encouraged to raise their own funding, which means that they will also be responsible for administering them and reporting to their donors. TrueFootprint and members of the Catalyst 2030 network will provide assistance with resource development where possible.
If funding for scale-up is secured centrally, we are proposing that such grants be reviewed and approved by a separate oversight board composed of people independent of TrueFootprint:
- Ms Malika Parent, former Chief of Staff of the International Federation of the Red Cross, has offered to chair this board. Malika has extensive emergency and humanitarian sector experience and sits on the oversight committees of UNHCR, FAO and the ILO.
- We welcome funding partners nominating others to join this board.
The pilots are run using our Minimum Viable Product. To fulfil our goals for CCMC and, beyond the pandemic, for building a sustainable business around empowerment tools, we need to build out a development team to:
- Expand the data input channels: We currently just provide an Android app. In some countries feature phones make up a significant share of the mobile market, with even higher shares for groups such as rural women or low-income workers. Some of these group may only have SMS connectivity, and no Internet. To develop this we have to build on our component-based system architecture. On the other side of the spectrum, as we have found out from our pilots, in some countries iOS is the prevalent operating system among health workers. To support iPhone we do not expect any major obstacles, as we had chosen React Native for our front-end needs. We expect our main challenge here to be finding developers with experience in building feature phone applications.
- Build partner admin tools: We currently have no tools to register monitors or health centres in batches. We need to design and build tools our partners can use to register monitors, register health centres, and assign their health centers to them. Monitor outreach and onboarding tools need to be built, as well as monitor monitoring, and monitor certification support. Our current limited admin tooling is all in English, but internationalisation and localisation is required, including for right-to-left scripts. Access control, data security and data privacy are important considerations in the design of these tools.
- Build questionnaire template library: We currently serve the same set of questions in all countries, but we anticipate that the needs may diverge per country. We aim to build a template library so that question duplication can be avoided, which would hamper meta-analyses. We also only need to expand our basic set of question-types, create the ability for dependent questions, and improve the management of translations.
- Expand self-empowerment and knowledge sharing features: Our current in-app support for self-empowerment is minimal. We want to improve the user experience for monitors to identify, record, and resolve issues. Currently only monitors on the same health centre can share knowledge around an issue. We want to expand this so monitors can share their knowledge with monitors of other health centres. We aim to start with restricting this to same-language speakers, but ultimately want to try to support knowledge sharing across languages.
- Analytics and reporting: Our minimum viable product includes very basic dashboards. We need to build out a portal that provides access control, improved visualisation, a raw anonymised data browser, a photo gallery. The main challenge here is to build for scale, so that as the size of the database grows, the performance of the tool does not decline. Internationalisation and localisation are needed as well. We also need to build or connect to tools that provide more descriptive, predictive and eventually prescriptive analytics. Using automated text analysis, sentiment analysis and image analysis we aim to uncover patterns hidden in the unstructured data we collect.
- Provide aggregate data access: build out a data feed system (CSV, XML) and expand our internal API and make it external. For both delivery mechanisms we need to build access control mechanisms.
- App user experience: We aim to continuously improve the user experience of the app. We need to capture more behavioural data, do more user research, and build a simple A/B test framework to set up an environment in which small improvements can happen frequently.
Our aim is that all the tech we build in the context of CCMC is instantly reusable for our non-Covid-19 use cases of addressing social and environmental issues in supply chains.
TrueFootprint provides project partners localised dashboards with live data feeds. PDF reports are shared weekly, but local partners will also be able to generate reports themselves, which they can disseminate to all their local users and stakeholders, including the relevant health authorities.
If health authorities are interested, they can automatically pull data into their management systems.
Data Privacy & ownership
The answers monitors provide are anonymous: we do not share who said what with anybody. The content monitors submit is owned by them. By submitting they grant TrueFootprint a license to use and distribute their content. The aggregate data derived from the content from groups of monitors is owned by TrueFootprint. We license this aggregate data to stakeholders.
Digital Inclusion Strategy
Key barriers to digital inclusion include workers in health facilities, healthcare users and community monitors:
- Not being able to afford the mobile data costs that would allow them to report on a regular basis (salaries for some workers are very low and data costs in some countries are very high)
- Not owning a smartphone
- Not owning a basic feature phone
- Not being allowed access to a smartphone (for example rural women in some countries or prison populations)
- Not having any mobile coverage or Internet accessibility in the area they live in
- Not being literate.
Local partners do their utmost to overcome these digital barriers, for example by:
- Providing data top-up to a sample of monitors based on their need
- Doing monitoring through community monitors or advocates for some at-risk and affected populations
- Having a comprehensive approach that ensures that rural communities are included in any subnational or national scale-up strategy.
- In extreme cases, if there is no alternative, data entry can also be done with pen and paper.
Monitors who are active at least 3x a week for a minimum period of 6-8 weeks are eligible to receive a certificate. After 6 months all active monitors will be eligible for a certificate as an “Advanced Monitor”.
The top 10-15% of monitors as measured by their diligence in reporting and their ability to resolve problems will receive recognition within a period of 2 months as “Supermonitors”. We foresee giving recognition to these individuals in joint ceremonies, done remotely or in-person, together with senior representatives from national or provincial health authorities.
The lessons learned from these Supermonitors are likely to be of immense value in the country. These people may be asked to become trainers and they would have the opportunity to be paid for doing so. The trainings they provide may also be done internationally to share their experiences with people in other countries.
Monitor Code of Conduct
Monitors are asked to sign a code of conduct, which is done within the Covid-19 FieldApp and upon completion of their initial training or induction from the local partner.
The draft code, which still needs to be finalised with the partners, is as follows:
- Respect the domestic laws of the country at all times;
- Not interfere with the proper functioning of the health system;
- Any external monitor must wear personal protective equipment before entering any health facility;
- Endeavour to help identify solutions to resolve identified problems;
- Never use the monitoring for party political purposes;
- Not participate in any unauthorized activity that could lead to an actual or perceived conflict of interest with their functions as a monitor;
- Not accept any gift or favours from health service providers;
- Not wear, carry or display any party symbols or colours of a partisan nature;
- Not carry any weapons;
- Blameless behaviour, sound judgement and the highest levels of personal discretion;
- Working harmoniously with other monitors;
- No unauthorized public statements; and
- Obey rules concerning photography and restrictions on taking pictures.
Monitoring, Evaluation and Learning
We are eager for independent monitoring, evaluation and learning to be an integral part of this project. We therefore recommend that 7.5 percent of in-country budgets are earmarked to Monitoring, Evaluation and Learning (MEL).
We will encourage the use of control locations to explore the extent to which the monitoring can be shown to contribute to better health outcomes.
For the MEL we will encourage the use of local professionals wherever possible. The process will be overseen by independent experts convened by TrueFootprint, but independent of it.
In the early stages of the scale-up (for example over 4 months), 25% of health facilities in a state or province be randomly selected for exclusion from participation in the CCMC. We would then compare key health outcomes in the control facilities with the outcomes in the intervention facilities to test the extent to which our efforts contribute to better outcomes.
Within the remaining 75% of target facilities we have some other suggestions for ‘controlled’ interventions that we will be testing to assess their levels of effectiveness.
Systems Change Implications of the CCMC
There are ways in which this project has systems change implications:
- Structural: Over 90% of the partners in the CCMC are local NGOs. Under the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness and the Accra Agenda for Action donors are committed to seek ways of working with local institutions and local priorities. And yet in emergency situations resources are still overwhelming allocated directly or through the intermediary of international NGOs and UN agencies, and not directly to local organisations. The CCMC demonstrates that local organisations are capable, highly responsive, and we aim to demonstrate that they can also be incredibly effective and efficient. To the extent this project succeeds, it can have implications for policies, practices and resource allocations in future emergencies. This project also cuts across silos since the same skills and tech solutions can be adapted and reapplied to other issues, even during the timeframe of the CCMC.
- Relational: By giving voice and visibility to data generated in real-time from the frontline, the CCMC shifts the power dynamics in the production of evidence and data from experts, governments and intermediary organisations directly to the frontline, generating verifiable data in a process that is truly bottom-up, not top-down. To the extent the CCMC is successful, this can have profound implications for data production in other key areas, including in supply chain sourcing, which TrueFootprint works on.
- Transformational: By showcasing that what we call “Supermonitors” are to be found from among frontline health workers, youth organisers, and at-risk populations, the CCMC contributes to shift the mental model for impactful development, creating opportunities to reach target clients and communities directly, bypassing intermediaries, and to engage communities substantively in the identification of their own needs and priorities.
Sustainability of the FieldApp Beyond Covid-19
TrueFootprint’s aim in building this technology is to enable wide adoption by users who have a voice but are often not heard.
Our commitment in the context of this project is that
- The partners in the CCMC will have ongoing and free access to the FieldApp and that they can re-use and adapt the FieldApp for other projects and topics if they are interested in doing so.
- We are also committed to providing the FieldApp for free to the members of Catalyst 2030.
Our eventual goal is to provide the FieldApp and all its key features for free to organisations that work directly with communities, including to governments in Middle Income and Least Developed Countries.
We have three main ways of generating revenues for TrueFootprint to sustain this technology and still be in a position to provide it for free for end-users and the organisations that service and support them:
- TrueFootprint’s core value proposition is to provide better impact and sustainability data for the asset management industry, corporates and through them to their key suppliers. These services are provided on a commercial basis.
- We are testing a business model wherein systematic data collection, for example in projects funded by aid donors, foundations and corporate CSR, will include micro-payments to certified monitors, and more significant payments to people who qualify as “Supermonitors”; in such a scenario TrueFootprint would charge a transaction fee as a percentage of those payments.
- Commercial arrangements on large projects, such as projects with more than 1,000 users.
All the tech we build in the context of CCMC is instantly reusable for non-Covid-19 use cases in support of these self-funding value propositions.
Annex 1. Bios of the Key Team Members
Fredrik Galtung, Founder CEO, TrueFootprint
Fredrik Galtung is cofounder of TrueFootprint (https://www.truefootprint.com/), a startup that works with asset managers, corporates and people in local communities to produce better ESG, sustainability and impact data – and improved results. TrueFootprint’s technology empowers people to collect data and take ownership of solutions to improve their lives and the businesses they work in.
Before starting TrueFootprint Fredrik spent over two decades in international development. He was Transparency International’s founding staff member and its Head of Research for a decade. In 2003, he co-founded Integrity Action, which delivered the bottom-up monitoring of development projects and services at scale in 14 countries.
Fredrik has consulted on integrity and strategic corruption control in more than 40 countries. He has advised five presidents and prime ministers in Africa, Asia and Latin America, several corporations and several international organisations, such as the World Bank and Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB and Malaria.
Fredrik is an Ashoka Fellow and a founding member of Catalyst 2030.
Edwin Bos, Chief Product Officer, TrueFootprint
Edwin Bos is cofounder of TrueFootprint. Previously he was Chief Innovation Officer at the reviews company Reevoo, responsible for the integrity and impartiality of the content as well product innovation.
This B2B company has clients in various sectors (retail, travel, automotive, finance), and its network spanned 60 countries, 30 languages, serving over 1 billion impressions a month.
Prior to Reevoo Edwin worked in user experience roles at Yahoo! and Apple Computer. He holds a PhD in human-computer interaction.
Chanda Pwapwa, Lead Engineer, TrueFootprint
Software engineer with experience in the full software development lifecycle, from concept through delivery of next-generation applications and customisable solutions.
Chanda has worked with distributed teams located in Cape Town, Singapore, Amsterdam, India and Vietnam. Specific solutions range from implementing new web application features for an online community of adventure travel professionals to a system that facilitates the administrative processes around surface break ups in road works for many of Dutch cities and towns.
He joined TrueFootprint for a chance to be part of team working on solutions that can help people who need it most.
Annex 2. The CCMC and Catalyst 2030
Catalyst 2030 is a movement of 300+ social entrepreneurs and other stakeholders working collaboratively and across silos to achieve the SDGs by 2030. It was officially launched in early 2020. The membership of Catalyst 2030 works in over 160 countries and they have projects with direct effects on 85%+ of the SDG targets.
Fredrik Galtung of TrueFootprint has been involved with Catalyst 2030 from the start. He is on the movement’s Incubation Board and its Operations and Finance Committee. He also facilitates the Working Group on Impact and Client Driven Development.
Members of Catalyst 2030 who have been active in advancing the CCMC either through their own engagement in the pilots, by introducing their partners, or through support to resource mobilisation:
- Andrea Coleman, Riders for Health (UK)
- Arthur Wood, Total Impact Capital (USA/CH)
- Audrey Selian, Artha Network (CH)
- Bharat Sharma, Dakshas (India)
- Celina de Sola, Glasswing International (El Salvador)
- Colin Mcelwee, Worldreader (USA/Spain)
- Diana Wells, Ashoka (USA)
- Frédéric Bailly, Groupe SOS (France)
- Gabby Arenas, TAAP Foundation (Colombia/Venezuela)
- Gisela Solymos, CREN (Brazil)
- Harald Nusser, Novartis (CH)
- Heri Bitamala, CERC (DR Congo)
- Janet Longmore, Digital Opportunity Trust (Canada)
- Maryam Uwais, Leap Africa (Nigeria)
- Mel Young, Homeless World Cup (UK)
- Michael Green, Social Progress Imperative (USA)
- Neelam Chhiber, Industree Foundation (India)
- Olivier Nkunzurwanda, Refugee Innovation Centre (Uganda)
- Sanjay Rajan, Maanuka (USA)
- Shona McDonald, Shonaquip (South Africa)
- Suzanne Bowles, Cattail Strategy (USA)
Further members of Catalyst 2030 are likely to become part of the CCMC after the pilot stage.
Partners marked in purple are current members of Catalyst 2030. Partners marked in purple joined thanks to introductions through Catalyst 2030 members.
|Afghanistan||Afghanistan Local Governance Studies Oragnization (ALGSO)|
|Armenia||Arabkir Medical Center|
|Bhutan||Bhutan Transparency Initiatives|
|Brasil||Homeless World Cup Brasil|
|Congo DRC||CDJP Kalemie|
|Costa Rica||InterAmerican Center for Global Health (CISG)|
|Côte d’Ivoire||Lumiere Action|
|Côte d’Ivoire||Femme Égale Vie|
|El Salvador||Glasswing International|
|Ethiopia||Ethiopian Medical Women’s Association|
|Ethiopia||Bizuayehu Jembere, Digital Opportunity Trust|
|Ethiopia||Hintsa Bekuretsyon, Digital Opportunity Trust|
|France||Groupe SOS Seniors|
|Gabon||Reseau de Lutte contre la Maladie au Gabon|
|Georgia||Tbilisi State Medical University|
|Kenya||Great Mercy Development Centre|
|Kenya||John Wabwire, Digital Opportunity Trust|
|Kenya||Mike Tyson Oyola, Digital Opportunity Trust|
|Kenya||Jumuiya Women Fund|
|Lesotho||Riders for Health|
|Malawi||Mwananchi Accountability Research and Learning|
|Malawi||Play Soccer Malawi|
|Mali||Association des Jeunes pour la Citoyenneté Active et la Démocratie|
|Mali||Pauline Nguyen, Santé Sud|
|Mozambique||Centro de Integridade Publica|
|Nigeria (FCT/Lagos)||HolyHill Church|
|North Macedonia||Comac Medical|
|Pakistan||Charter for Compassion|
|Peru||Taller de los niños (TANI)|
|Philippines||U of the Philippines|
|Rwanda||Richard Arinitwe, Digital Opportunity Trust|
|Rwanda||Isaac Abamwizeye, Digital Opportunity Trust|
|Rwanda||Rachel Uwizerwa, Digital Opportunity Trust|
|Rwanda||Samuel NIYOMUREMYI, Digital Opportunity Trust|
|Senegal||Serigne Bassirou Mboup, youth volunteer|
|Serbia||Fund for Social and Democratic Initiatives (FOSDI)|
|South Africa||Xihlovo Xa Vutomi Hospice and Training|
|South Sudan||African Youth Action Network (AYAN)|
|South Sudan||Center for Democracy and Development|
|Sri Lanka||Centre for Governance Innovations|
|The Gambia||Riders for Health|
|Timor Leste||Luta Hamutuk|
|Uganda||Refugee Innovation Centre|
|Uganda||Rebecca Florence Nanono, Digital Opportunity Trust|
|Ukraine||Philosophy of the Heart in Vinnytsia|
|United Kingdom||User Voice|
|USA||Harlem Wellness Center|
|Vietnam||Hanoi School of Public Health|
|Zambia||Albert Manasyan, CIDRZ|
|Zambia||Sipho Mwanza, Digital Opportunity Trust|
 Safety is defined in terms of the guidance provided by WHO on “Critical preparedness, readiness and response”, see https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/technical-guidance-publications
 The next level up from this would be “Prescriptive Analytics”. We will only do this if we secure partnership with a relevant big data partner, such as Accenture, Google or IBM. Conversations have already started with two of these companies.
 The technology and methodology deployed by TrueFootprint draws on one of the cofounders’ more than 15 years of prior experience pioneering the use of tech-enabled social accountability in fragile and conflict affected countries, eventually helping communities monitor over 3,000 projects worth over $1.2 billion in 14 countries, with an average resolution-rate of identified problems in excess of 55%. With TrueFootprint the technology has been designed for scale, as demonstrated by pilots that are already underway in so many countries.